Sunday, June 8, 2008

Can we use the term Allah to represent God’s name in the Bible? A Quranic Perspective


I find it strange that in the discussions and debates about whether it is acceptable to use the term ‘Allah’ to refer to God in the Bible, neither the Christians who are for the using of the term and the Malaysian Muslims who are against it, considered checking the Quran’s position with regards to the issue.

While it is understandable that the Christians may miss this, for the Muslim not to do so is improper. Instead of basing on the Quran, a few of our Muslim brethrens are busy trying to show that historically the Bible does not use the term Allah. Muslims must be careful not to fall into the category of people mentioned in the Quran in this verse.

“And the Messenger cried out: O my Lord! Surely my people have treated this Quran as a forsaken thing. (
Quran 25: 30).

Muslims and Non-Muslims who want to discuss matters of religion with Muslims must note that for a believing Muslim no evidence is greater than the Quran,

“Say: "What thing is most Weighty in evidence?" Say: "(Allah) is witness between me and you; This Qur'an hath been revealed to me by inspiration, that I may warn you and all whom it reaches. …..." (Quran 6:19).

For a Muslim, the Quran is the ultimate guide,

"And we sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose, that thou should make clear to them those things in which they differ, that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe." (Quran 16:64)


"Those who listen to the Word and follow the best meaning in it, those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endowed with understanding." (Quran 39:18).

A Muslim who claims to follow Prophet Muhammad must stick to the Quran,

“So believe in Allah and His Apostle the unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His Words: Follow him that (so) ye may be guided.” (HQ 7:158).

And those who do not judge by using the Quran,

“If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) unbelievers. (Quran 5: 44)

The above Quranic statements should be sufficed to show that basing the discussion on the Quran is the logical approach. If a Muslim or Non-Muslim were to proof that the Quran suggest that the term Allah can or cannot be used, all Muslims must follow the decree. Period!

So here we go, but first one must understand the Quranic world view about religion and Allah.

History of religion - Islam

The Quran suggest that all religions came from Allah as He has sent messengers (Jesus included) everywhere in the course of history; a few are named in the Quran while the rest are not.

Here are clear examples. I will further elaborate this when dealing with the subject on the monopoly of Allah and the Heavens.

Of some apostles We have already told thee the story; of others We have not;- and to Moses Allah spoke direct;- (Quran 4 : 164)

We did aforetime send apostles before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee. It was not (possible) for any apostle to bring a sign except by the leave of Allah … (Quran 40:78) also refer Quran 21:25, 17:77, 43:6

Any Muslim, who does not accept even one of the messengers named or unnamed, ceased being a believer

Those who deny Allah and His apostles, and (those who) wish to separate Allah from His apostles, saying: "We believe in some but reject others": And (those who) wish to take a course midway They are in truth (equally) unbelievers; and we have prepared for unbelievers a humiliating punishment, To those who believe in Allah and His apostles and make no distinction between any of the apostles, we shall soon give their (due) rewards: for Allah is Oft- forgiving, Most Merciful - (Quran 4 : 150-153) also refer Quran 2:136, 3:84

In fact from the Quranic viewpoint, Prophet Muhammad is not the founder of Islam as the Prophet himself was decreed to say that his role model is Prophet Abraham.

So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), "Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith, and he joined not gods with Allah." (Quran 16:123) Also refer Quran 16:20, 2:135, 3:95, 4:125, and 6:61.

As far as the Quran is concerned history started with Allah. It started with His creation and it was Allah who name Muslims, Muslims; well before the Prophet’s time.

And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation); that the Messenger may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to Allah. He is your Protector - the Best to protect and the Best to help! (Quran 22:78)

The Quran’s version of the history of mankind started with Adam the first civilized homosapien (one who is endowed with the power of conceptual thoughts and language Quran 2:31). As such Islam’s history is world history not the history of the Arabs.

When thy Lord drew forth from the Children of Adam - from their loins - their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves, (saying): "Am I not your Lord (who cherishes and sustains you)?"- They said: "Yea! We do testify!" (This), lest ye should say on the Day of Judgment: "Of this we were never mindful": (Quran 7:70) Also refer Quran 7:31, !7:70, 2:33, 2:37, 7:27.

O ye Children of Adam! Whenever there come to you apostles from amongst you, rehearsing My signs unto you, - those who are righteous and mend (their lives),- on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve. (Quran 7:35)

In that sense almost all of the history books on Islam that usually record Islam with the coming of Muhammad run contrary to the Quran. At best they are relating the history of the Arab people and how they impacted the world and built an empire base on their new faith, Islam. (Here is where the historian Albert Habib Hourani got it right by calling his book “A History of the Arab Peoples”).

It is this myopic view and basic assumption of Islam’s history that over the years has steered Muslims to deviate from having a universal approach towards Islam and hence grew to be more and more exclusive rather than inclusive of all the other communities. Slowly but surely, Muslims became more and more monopolistic towards Allah. The Quran on the other hand decreed,

And, verily, this community of yours is one single community, since I am the Sustainer of you all: remain, then, conscious of Me! (Quran 23:52)

Places of Worships

Since all the messengers were Allah sent; the Quran equates all calls in every places of worship must only be for Him. Note that the Quran did not limit it to only the mosque. You will find that the Quran says,

"And the places of worship are for Allah (alone): So invoke not any one along with Allah. (Quran 72:18)

And that all places of worships whether they are mosques, monasteries or churches honor Him,
(They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah.. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).( Quran 22:40)


And who is more unjust than he who forbids that in places for the worship of Allah, Allah’s name should be celebrated?-whose zeal is (in fact) to ruin them? …. (Quran 2:114)

And the only deity worth praising is Allah alone,

All praise is due to Allah alone the Sustainer of all the Worlds’. (Quran 1:2)

Is there a Monopoly to Allah, Religion and Paradise?

Contrary to popular understanding, Prophet Mohamad did not seek to destroy the other ways of life/religions like Christianity, Judaism, etc but constantly calling on the Jews and Christians to agree that we are praying to the same God, Allah.

Ironically the Quran’s main argument against the Jews and Christians during the time of the Prophet is their monopolistic claim to Allah and paradise.

Verily Allah is my lord and your lord: Him therefore serve ye: this is a Way that is straight. (Quran 19:36)

Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah, seeing that He is our lord and your lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him? (Quran 2:139)

And they say: "None shall enter paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." Those are their (vain) desires. Say: "Produce your proof if ye are truthful." (Quran 2:111)

The Quran suggest the Unity of religions and the Quran was sent to confirm all the previous scriptures.

Those who believe, and those who follow the Jewish, and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. (Quran 2:62) Also refer Quran 5:69

And who believe in the Revelation sent to thee, and sent before thy time, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter. (Quran 2:4)

It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus). (Quran 3:3) also refer Quran 5:48

It is part of Allah’s plans to provide mankind with multiple platforms to achieve the ultimate goal that is in reaching Him. How to reach Him, of rites and ceremonies, it is open.

To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way? If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah. it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute (Quran 5:48)

To every People have We appointed rites and ceremonies which they must follow: let them not then dispute with thee on the matter, but do thou invite (them) to thy Lord: for thou art assuredly on the Right Way. (Quran 22:67)

The objective of the Quran is to make faith and deed and not religious affiliation to any particular community as the criteria for salvation. This criterion is not just for those who were born since the coming of Prophet Muhammad but also inclusive of those from the very beginning of the history of man (and till the end of the world).

The Quran specifically identified righteousness as the best platform.

O ye Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you. But the raiment of righteousness, - that is the best. Such are among the Signs of Allah, that they may receive admonition! (Quran 7:26)

And what and how is righteousness in the Quran?

It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness-

1. to believe in Allah
2. and the Last Day,
3. and the Angels,
4. and the Revelation,
5. and the Messengers;
6. to spend of your substance, out of love for Him,
a. for your kin,
b. for orphans,
c. for the needy,
d. for the wayfarer,
e. for those who ask,
f. and for the ransom of slaves;
7. to be steadfast in prayer,
8. and practice regular charity;
9. to fulfill the contracts which ye have made;
10. and to be firm and patient,
a. in pain (or suffering)
b. and adversity,
c. and throughout all periods of panic.

Such are the people of truth, the Allah-fearing” (Quran 2:177)

The Quran and the Christians

The Quran does not reject nor accept Christianity wholesale. The Quran disagree with Christianity’s interpretation of history mainly about who Jesus was. For the Quran, Jesus was a prophet and he is not the son of Allah and as such the Quran disagree to the concept of Trinity (Quran 4:171).

For the Quran, Jesus did not die on the cross nor was he Resurrected. The Quran suggest that Jesus survived the crucifixion and later died just as all the other prophets before him (Quran 5:75, 4:157). Jesus is similar to Prophet Muhammad and all the previous Messengers (Quran 3:144) who came, did their job and died.

The Quran is also opposed to any religion be they Jews, Christians or any other Traditions who suggest that followers other than theirs are doomed; that is, if Christianity seek to monopolize Allah and Salvation (refer earlier Quranic quotes)

As for Christians, again there is no wholesale acceptance or rejection. There are bad Christians who are unjust and selfish (Quran 5:51-52) and good ones who fight for what is right.

Not all of them are alike: Of the People of the Book are portions that stand (For the right): They rehearse the Signs of Allah all night long, and they prostrate themselves in adoration (Quran 3:113)

And among the good Christians are those similar to good Muslims, men of understanding, who care about the hereafter and are not arrogant.

Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant. (Quran 5:82)

The Conclusion

It is clear that it is not just permissible to use the term Allah to refer to God in the Bible, it is exactly what the Quran wants us to do. Is it not an irony?

I would like to thank my Christian brothers and sisters in their effort to make Allah the universal name of God and wanting the name to be the preferred reference to God in the Bible. But, you must not stop there.

You must also strive hard to ensure that not just the Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia Bibles use the term Allah but all the other translations in the world regardless if they are in Japanese, English, Russian or Hindi uses the same term. Malaysian Christians can lead the world of Christianity to make Allah the universal name for God with the solid support of their Muslim brothers and sisters. Anything that can bring us closer together must be supported. A shared universal name to call our God Allah seems most appropriate beginning.

Failing to do so will create mistrust because the correct term for God in Malay is Tuhan. The Muslims will question your consistency and sincerity. Because the real issue here is Trust. Not the technicality of the term Allah, Tuhan, Elohim, Elah etc. This is where we need to focus.

There are three levels of trust missing.

Firstly we do not trust each other. The Muslims perceive the inconsistency of Christians wanting to use the term Allah in the Malay bible and not the other translations as a plot to convert Malay Muslims to Christianity. And, the Christians perceive the Muslims rejection to the usage of the term as another strategy to block the spread of the Christian faith to Muslims in Malaysia. This feeling is deep in the Christians’ psyche as they find it as unfair the lopsided law on conversion in Malaysia (Check what the Quran say about this at 83:1-3 and 5:8).

Secondly, we do not trust ourselves. The Muslims lack confidence of fellow Muslims and feel that by just using the term Allah, their faith towards Islam can be shaken. The Christians lack confidence that being Christ like is enough to attract others to the faith.

Yet the deepest rot is the lack of trust in Allah or God or Tuhan or any other names you want to call upon Him! Both Muslims and Christians fail to trust that Allah will be with those who are true and love those who trust Him. If we do so, we have nothing to fear and nothing to grieve. Failing to trust Him, we become weak, insecure and misguided.

“There are many Lamps, only one Light”

Anas Zubedy
June 2008


my said...

Tend to agree that the term of Allah should not only belong to one group of people, Furthermore, Islam is a universal concept that comprehends man and the Universe about him. Therefore, I believe who claim their Muslim (either Malay, Chinese, Indian, etc) believes in ONE GOD, ALLAH, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider.

Yes, many of us know that the word "Allah" simply means "God" in Arabic. Yet, in my opinion, it is unique name than "God," since it cannot be changed into "gods"-plural. For example, yes both Islam and Christian believe in God but what Muslims reject, one of them is called Trinity.

In the Quran also clearly stated that He has neither father nor mother, neither son nor was He fathered. None equal to Him. He is God of all mankind, not of a special tribe or race. Allah (God) is High and Supreme.

I am also glad that if all people in this world use the same term “Allah” and believe the same as what He wants us to believe and follow…

But the question is,

They believe in God or one God, but that one God is understood in a different way to the way Muslims believe in Allah (which is, after all, the Arabic name for this one God) had different ideas about what that God was like. If they also proclaim that, there is only one God that is Allah s.w.t… then why are there so many religions and beliefs?

Some Quoted from verses of Quran:

“God does not forgive anything being associated with Him, but He forgives whoever He wills for anything other than that. Anyone who associates something with God has committed a terrible crime. (Quran, 4: 48)

"There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things)" (Quran 42:11)

"God has not taken to Himself any son, nor is there any god with Him: For then each god would have taken of that which he created and some of them would have risen up over others" (Quran 23:91)

“I (God) have chosen for you Islam as a religion” (Quran 5:3).

“Surely the religion with God is Islam” (Quran 3:19).

“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favour to you and chosen for you Islam as a religion” (Quran 5:3).

“Say : O mankind, surely I am the Messenger of God to you all” (Quran7:158).

The very foundations of the unity at which Islam aimed by giving a single prophet to the whole world. Hence it is that the Holy Prophet Muhammad is spoken of as:

“the Messenger of God and the last of the prophets” (Quran 33:40).

“He is Allah - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and Earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise," (Quran: Surah al-Hashr, 24)

“Do not engage in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an or do any action without our witnessing you while you are occupied with it. Not even the smallest speck eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Nor is there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book” (Quran, 10: 61)

"Or have you taken unto you others beside Him to be your protectors, even such as have no power either for good or for harm to themselves?" (Quran 13:16)

Just my sincere opinion.. May Allah always love and bless us..

Hakim J said...


When your arguments were based on the Quran, I wonder on what basis do some have to monopoly the Arabic term for GOD - ALLAH?

If we were to say that the Christian God is different from Muslim GOD, the Hindus GOD, the Jew GOD and other religion's GOD, we are actually believing in MORE THAN ONE GOD!

And yet with this kind of belief, we call ourselves muslims (who believe and follow the Quran)? Shame on ourselves.

Ida Bakar said...

Good argument as per usual.

Let us look at it another way: Perhaps the word Tuhan shouldn't be used at all. If there is only one 'Allah' and who and what the heck is this 'Tuhan' doing in Malaysia's Islam. Perhaps we should solat and not sembahyang because the dubious character of 'Yang' from our pagan past that we prostrate to. As for 'segala puja and puji ke atas Tuhan yang Maha Agung' (praise be to God the Almighty) well, the Hindus might take issue with us for performing a pooja and the Yang di-Pertuan Agung now have a rival.

Frantic semantics, I dare say!

ko said...

To quote you- "Failing to do so will create mistrust because the correct term for God in Malay is Tuhan."

You've just contradicted yourself. The word Allah is derived from Arabic, meaning God. Meanwhile, Tuhan also means God, albeit in another language- Malay. So Malays using the word Allah means they are using a word from another language to represent God. So, how is it that people from other beliefs cannot use a word from another language to represent God?

bluesyworms said...

Your citation for this Quranic verse is incorrect;

"As for Christians, again there is no wholesale acceptance or rejection. There are bad Christians who are unjust and selfish (Quran 5:51-52) and good ones who fight for what is right"

Can you please give the correct citation for it? Thank you.

bluesyworms said...

OOOoooo my bad, you were explaining the verse of 5:51-52. I just realise it after reading it so many times. Thought it was a verse on its own hence i was wondering where it was. Hahaha!!

My bad, so sorry. Anyhow thank you for a good article. I may make a reference to it in an article i'm trying to write as well about this matter.

Again, thank you.